Translated from Śrī Radha-Govinda-natha’s six-page Bengali commentary on CC Madhya 8.150 by Navadvipa Dasa
The inverted play (viparīta-vihāra) that is brought forth by self-forgetfulness (ātma-vismṛti)—or in other words, by the absence of the awareness of distinction (bheda-jñāna-rāhitya)—which itself arises from complete identification (tanmayatā) with vilāsa alone, is the true signifier (paricāyaka) of the state of the highest exultation of the glory of vilāsa. This is also understood from the description found in Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī’s Gopāla-campu, in the prior division (pūrva-campu), Scene 33, which is entitled, “The Fulfillment of All the Heart’s Longings” (sarva-manoratha-pūraṇam). The scene described therein can be summarized as follows.
Being overcome by the most intense longing to facilitate Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s pleasure, the young women of Vraja remained immersed in divine play (vilāsa) with Him—their very life and soul (prāṇa-vallabha)—day after day without cessation. It was as though their innate longing for divine play (vilāsa-vāsanā) was not pacified even in the least. Rather, day after day it seemed to be exponentially increased. It was as though they, whose thirst remained ever unpacified (śānti-hīna), upheld as their life’s vow (vrata) the vilāsa that has as its one and only import the pleasure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. The indomitability (uddāmatā) and progressively increasing ardor (autkaṇṭhya) of this innate disposition (vāsanā) for sevā is found to an all-surpassing extent in Śrī Rādhā alone, because the supreme manifestation of prema is present only in her. Rādhā’s supreme ardor (param-autkaṇṭhya), arising from her innate disposition (vāsanā) for sevā, gives rise in Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s heart (citta) to the corresponding supreme ardor (param-autkaṇṭhya), arising from His innate disposition (vāsanā), to accept sevā. And Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s innate disposition to accept sevā is in reality simply the longing (autkaṇṭhya) in Him to extend love or pleasure (prīti-vidhāna) to Śrī Rādhā and the Vraja-sundarīs. This is due to the fact that the sole aim of all Kṛṣṇa’s līlās is to please the hearts of His devotees, as He Himself openly declares in the following statement: “I enact varieties of divine play simply for the delight of My devotees” (mad-bhaktānāṁ vinodārthaṁ karomi vividhāḥ kriyāḥ, Padma Purāṇa).
If at the root of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s innate disposition to accept the sevā of His devotees there lied concealed the desire for His own happiness (sva-sukha-vāsanā), there would be no glory at all in His acceptance of sevā. Then for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the acceptance of His devotees’ sevā could not be of completely splendorous glory (pūrṇa-aujjvalye mahīyān). When, however, Śrī Rādhā’s innate disposition (vāsanā) to serve Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and His innate disposition to accept Rādhā’s service in order to please her, both attain complete indomitability (pūrṇa-uddāmatā) and are transformed into supreme longing (carama-autkaṇṭhya)—then only their prema-vilāsa can be elevated in its glory to highest degree of completion. In this manner, when the hero and heroine are carried along in the flow of the līlā under the compelling force of the most highly developed longing (caramatama-autkaṇṭhya), their amorous play (ramaṇa) is as described by Jīva Gosvāmī in the following passage:
“Every day, the gopīs and Kṛṣṇa would mutually proceed to a secluded place, meet together, embrace and kiss each other, play together, delight each other, speak of amorous affairs, order each other with the words, “Dress me nicely,” and also dress each other ornamentally. In this manner, they remained continuously immersed in varieties of amorous play (keli-vilāsa). Yet in doing so, due to their singularly focused identification (aikāntikī-tanmayatā) with vilāsa alone, they had no cognizance (anusandhāna) whatsoever of “who is acting,” “who has acted,” and “who can act” (Gopāla-campu, Pūrva, 33.5).
In this passage, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s self-forgetfulness (ātma-vismṛti), or in other words, their absence of awareness of any distinction between them (bheda-jñāna-rāhitya), is indicated. By the word anyo’nyam, or “mutually,” it is also understood that in the acts of embracing and kissing, as well as in issuing the order to be clothed by the other, sometimes Kṛṣṇa takes the lead, and at other times Rādhā does so. It is specifically in this reversal of their roles, that the inversion of their play (vilāsa-vaiparītya), or vilāsa-vivarta, is indicated. “Who indeed is the hero (ramaṇa), and who is the heroine (ramaṇī)? Who is the beloved (kānta), and who is the lover (kāntā)?” Under the influence of complete identification (tanmayatā) with vilāsa alone, this type of awareness of distinction (bheda-jñāna) disappears from their minds. This is the essential import of Rādhā’s upcoming statement: “He is not the ramaṇa, and I am not the ramaṇī.”
When the hero and heroine are overcome by the very highest peak (carama-parā-kāṣṭhā) of prema’s unfolding, then, being irresistibly impelled by the innate longing (vāsanā) to please each other, they attain the state of inebriation (pramattatā) in their play (keli-vilāsa). At such times, their minds (citta), having attained complete identity (tād-ātmya) with the ceaseless longing (vāsanā) for keli-vilāsa, become as though one without distinction (abhinnatva). This is the import of the second line of Rādhā’s upcoming statement: “The innate longing born from our hearts [manobhava, i.e., the vāsanā to please each other] has powdered our two minds into a unified substance, such that [all distinction between us has disappeared].”
Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa directly participate in such forms of play (vilāsa), out of supreme longing (parama-autkaṇṭhya), it appears to them as if it all occurred in a dream (svāpnika). As a consequence of the all-surpassing ardor of prema, Śrī Rādhā perceives even her union with Śrī Kṛṣṇa as separation, separation as union, her home as the forest, the forest as her home, sleep as waking, waking as sleep, cold as heat, heat as cold, and so on. When this type of situation takes hold, an inversion (vaiparītya) occurs even in Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s respective instrinsic natures (svabhāva) as lover (kāntā) and beloved (kānta). In other words, the hero’s behavior is transferred into the heroine, and the heroine’s behavior is transferred into the hero—all of which occurs unknown to them. This is the inversion (vaiparītya) of vilāsa.
This inversion arises from the intrinsic constitution (svabhāvika-dharma) of prema that has attained to state of the highest exultation (caramotkarṣatā), which is to say that it is born of an ineffable and irresistible longing to extend love or pleasure (prīti-vidhāna) to each other. This inversion is but the outward manifestation (bahir-vikāśa) of the state of complete identity (eka-tanmayatā) with the bliss of vilāsa. Just as the perception of separation in union, or union in separation, is the external symptom of supreme longing (parama-autkaṇṭhya), so too, this inversion of vilāsa is also an external symptom of complete identity with the bliss of vilāsa impelled by the state of inebriation (unmattatā) arising out of supreme prema. By these very symptoms, Rāmānanda Rāya wished to make his intended object known. And his intended object (uddiṣṭa-vastu) was not merely the inversion of vilāsa, but rather, its cause—namely, the state of complete identity (eka-tanmayatā) with the bliss of the vilāsa arising from prema.
With the intent to bring to light this unprecedented uniqueness (apūrva-vaiśiṣṭya) of Śrī Rādhā’s prema, Mahāprabhu first caused the uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) of prema’s object (viṣaya), Śrī Kṛṣṇa, to be broadcast through the mouth of Rāmānanda Rāya. In this respect, He made known that Kṛṣṇa is the embodiment of the bliss of all rasas, the personification of the emperor of all rasas—namely, the amorous sentiment (śṛṅgāra)—the direct enchanter of Cupid (sākṣāt-manmatha-manmatha), the ever newly blossoming transcendental Cupid (aprākṛta-navīna-madana), and He who steals the minds of all, even to the very core of their being (ātma-paryanta). Next, Mahāprabhu made known the uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) of prema’s subject (āśraya), Śrī Rādhā. Through the mouth of Rāmānanda Rāya, He disclosed the fact that she is the embodiment of mahābhāva, essentially constituted of bliss and consciousness (ānanda-cinmaya-rasa), that her body and senses are permeated (vibhāvita) with prema, that she is a mine of the gems of pure prema for Kṛṣṇa, and intrinsically endowed with unexcelled beauty (saundarya), mellifluousness (mādhurya), supreme fortune (saubhāgya), and all other divine qualities.
In this manner, having made evident the all-exceeding preeminence of prema’s object and subject, Mahāprabhu then felt the uprising of the intent to make known the glory of the vilāsa of Śrī Nanda-nandana and Śrī Bhānu-nandinī—the former being the embodiment of the complete charming hero (akhaṇḍa-rasa-vallabha), and the latter that of the complete charming heroine (akhaṇḍa-rasa-vallabhā). The fortunate Rāmānanda Rāya, being thus impelled by Mahāprabhu’s indication, became engaged in describing the glory of Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa’s vilāsa. In the course of describing Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s feature as dhīra-lalita, he made known, by way of indication, that the culmination (paryavasāna) of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s above mentioned uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) is this very dhīra-lalita feature. He also made known that by specifying Śrī Kṛṣṇa as dhīra-lalita, it is evident that the complete range of qualities appropriate for the supreme exultation of the unique marvel (vaicitrī) of their vilāsa is gloriously present in Him. After this, Rāmānanda Rāya became silent.
Vilāsa is possible only by the involvement of both the hero and heroine (nāyaka-nāyikā). Consequently, if the complete range of qualities appropriate for vilāsa’s supreme exultation is present only in the hero (nāyaka), then the glory of vilāsa cannot attain its ultimate completion (pūrṇatā). The corresponding range of qualities must also be present in the heroine (nāyikā). Yet up to this point, Rāmānanda Rāya did not disclose whether or not all these qualities are present in the heroine Śrī Rādhā, nor did he make evident where lies the culmination (paryavasāna) of Her previously mentioned uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya). He made it appear as though whatever he had intended to say was then concluded.
Assuredly, Rāmānanda Rāya did previously speak of one characteristic of Śrī Rādhā’s uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya), when he said: “Even amidst hundreds of millions of gopīs, the fire of Kṛṣṇa’s longing (kāma-rūpa-agni) [to relish the prema of His lover (kāntā-prema-āsvādana-vāsanā)] could not be extinguished. By this alone, the quality of Śrī Rādhikā’s prema can easily be inferred” (CC 2.8.88). Hearing this, “Prabhu replied, that for which I have come to your place is precisely this knowledge in which is contained all the essential truths concerning the transcendental entity (vastu) known as rasa” (CC 2.8.89). Yet Prabhu’s longing was not satisfied even in this, as expressed in His next statement: “I wish to hear something more beyond this” (CC 2.8.90).
Thereafter, Rāmānanda Rāya spoke openly of Śrī Rādhā’s uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) along with that of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He also made evident where lies the culmination (paryavasāna) of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s vaiśiṣṭya. Yet, without having said anything regarding the culmination point (paryavasāna) of Śrī Rādhā’s vaiśiṣṭya, he appeared as if having adopted a vow of silence. If Rāmānanda were to have said: “I have already spoken of Śrī Rādhā’s unprecedented uniqueness (apūrva-vaiśiṣṭya) in my earlier statement [CC 2.8.88 cited above]. What more remains to be said beyond this?” To this, Prabhu replied: “There yet remains something more to be said.” Rāmānanda’s statement [CC 2.8.88] can be interpreted to mean: “That which cannot be found in hundreds of millions of gopīs is present in Śrī Rādhā.” By this statement, he gave an indication of Śrī Rādhā’s all-exceeding prema. Yet, he did not fully disclose to what ultimate state of being (avasthā) Śrī Rādhā’s all-exceeding prema can lead her, or what supreme exultation (paramotkarṣa) it can impart to her.
Just as there is a necessity (prayojana) for the hero (nāyaka) to manifest His dhīra-lalita feature in order for the glory of vilāsa to reach its highest peak (parā-kāṣṭhā), so too there is a necessity for the heroine (nāyikā) to manifest her feature of svādhīna-bhartṛkā, or “the heroine who keeps the hero constantly under her control (svāyattāsanna-dayitā bhavet svādhīna-bhartṛkā, Ujjavala-nīlamaṇi 5.91). The svādhīna-bhartṛkā heroine can intrepidly order her lover: “Draw a beautiful musk picture on my breasts and a sandalwood sketch on my cheeks. Place this girdle around my waist, decorate my braid with a flower garland, and adorn my arms with bracelets and my feet with anklets” (Ujjavala-nīlamaṇi 5.93). In the statements of Gopāla-campu, an account can be found of Rādhā’s condition (avasthā) when her svādhīna-bhartṛkā feature reaches its highest peak of intensity out of the completely evolved state (paripāka) of her prema.
Up to this point, however, Rāmānanda Rāya said nothing in particular regarding the question, “in what extremity does Śrī Rādhā’s svādhīna-bhartṛkā feature culminate under the astonishing influence of her mādanākhya-mahābhāva?” At the very beginning of the indication of this ineffable uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya), having arrived at the doorstep of an unprecedented storehouse of mystery (apūrva-rahasya-bhāṇḍāra), Rāmānanda suddenly came to a halt. It is understandable that it must have been a quandary for Rāmānanda to know whether or not it was Prabhu’s intention to proceed further beyond this point. After all, the matter at hand was supremely confidential (parama-rahasyamaya). In the Gītā, Śrī Kṛṣṇa specified His final instruction to Arjuna as “the foremost of all secrets” (sarva-guhyatamaṁ vacaḥ). Yet prema-vilāsa-vivarta is many, many times more confidential than the latter. For this reason, Rāmānanda Rāya was hesitant to disclose it. When, on perceiving his reluctance, Prabhu said: “This is excellent, but please do go on,” then only did Rāmānanda disclose this secret.
Such being the case, Rāmānanda Rāya spoke openly of prema-vilāsa-vivarta—Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s divine play (vilāsa) with Śrī Rādhā. Śrī Rādhā is the essential embodiment (svarūpa) of mahābhāva. The foremost manifestation of mahābhāva is called mādanākhya-mahābhāva, which is present only in Śrī Rādhā. The supreme manifestation of the uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) of mahābhāva is found exclusively in the state of mādana. Where the supreme manifestation of prema is present—there only the unsurpassed marvel (vaicitrī) of prema-vilāsa is manifested, there only is found the foremost manifestation of the glory of vilāsa. Prabhu’s final question to Rāmānanda Rāya was regarding the glory of vilāsa. Rāmānanda’s reply attained completion in his song, beginning with Rādhā’s words: “At first, my irrepressible, ever-expanding love (rāga) arose of its own accord in the mere twinkling of an eye. Expanding day after day, its end was never reached” (CC 2.8.152).
After hearing this song, Prabhu did not ask any further questions regarding the glory of vilāsa. Rather he declared: “This indeed is the limit of the ultimate object of attainment. By your grace, I have come to know of this beyond all doubt” (CC 2.8.157). In this moment, Prabhu’s yearning to discover the essential truth regarding the ultimate object to be realized (sādhya-vastu-tattva) attained complete fulfillment. Additionally, His longing (vāsanā) to know the glory of Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa’s vilāsa was also completely fulfilled. From this, it can be understood that the glory of vilāsa attains its supreme manifestation only in prema-vilāsa-vivarta. Consequently, the foremost manifestation of prema, and the foremost manifestation of the uniqueness (vaiśiṣṭya) of mahā-bhāva—or in other words, the supreme manifestation of mādanākhya-mahābhāva—is also the supreme manifestation of the glory of Rādhā’s prema.
The essay on prema-vilāsa-vivarta provided in the introductory volume of this series can be consulted for a detailed discussion regarding prema-vilāsa. Therein it is shown that the highest exultation of the glory of vilāsa occurs only in the supreme manifestation of mādanākhya-mahābhāva. In the same essay, it is also pointed out that the absence of awareness of distinction (bheda-rāhitya) spoken of earlier is not that of the sādhakas who adhere to the path of jñāna with the intent to realize their conscious identity with nondual (nirbheda) Brahman.
Previously it was discussed that in the completely evolved state (paripakāvasthā) of prema-vilāsa, under the influence of perfect identity (tanmayatā) with vilāsa alone, there is an uprising of perplexity (bhrama)—meaning self-forgetfulness (ātma-vismṛti), or the absence of awareness of distinction (bheda-jñāna-rāhitya)—and inversion (vaiparītya). It was also pointed out that bheda-jñāna-rāhitya (or perplexity, bhrama) and inversion (vaiparītya) are both external symptoms (bahir-lakṣaṇas) of the completely evolved state (paripakvatā) of prema-vilāsa. Additionally, it was demonstrated that among these two, inversion (vaiparītya) is not the prime characteristic of prema-vilāsa. On the other hand, the absence of awareness of distinction (bheda-jñāna-rāhitya) is the prime characteristic (viśeṣa-lakṣaṇa) of the completely evolved state (paripakvatā) of prema-vilāsa.
In Kavi Karṇapūra’s previously cited verse, he has referred to this bheda-jñāna-rāhitya as “the state of supreme oneness” (paraikya), signifying, the state of absolute oneness (sarvato-bhāve ekatā), or the unity of essential being (eka-rūpatā), of the minds of Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Under the influence of prema, the minds of the two lovers are liquefied and melded together to become one, attaining the state in which the delusion of the distinction between them is cast aside (nirdhūta-bheda-bhramam), as described in the upcoming verse [śloka 2.8.43 or text 2.8.199 in the continuous series], cited from Ujjavala-nīlamaṇi:
[In a forest grove on Govardhana Hill, while Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa were immersed in tasting each other’s sweetness (mādhurya), their bodies became decorated by the inflamed symptoms of the pure emotions that possessed their hearts, impelled by the transformations of divine love (uddīpta-sāttvika-bhāvas). Seeing this, Vṛnda was elated by the delightfulness of their supreme love (mahābhāva) and spoke the following words to Śrī Kṛṣṇa:] O King of elephants who sports in the bowers of Govardhana Hill! That highly skilled artist, “Amorous love” (śṛṅgāra), has slowly melted the shellac of the hearts of both You and Rādhā with the heat of Your perspiration, thus liquifying them into a unified substance bereft of the delusion of any distinction between You (nirdhūta-bheda-bhramam). Into this melding of Your hearts, he himself is blending a profusion of the bright red vermillion (hiṅgula) of Your newly intensified love (nava-rāga) in order to paint an extraordinary picture on the interior walls of the palace of this universe. (Ujjavala-nīlamaṇi 14.155)
In this verse it is said that Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s minds become one, just as two pieces of shellac merge together under intense heat. This very condition is the state of supreme oneness (paraikya) of Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa; this indeed is the absence of awareness of any distinction between them (bheda-jñāna-rāhitya). By stating that there was no distinction (bheda) between their two minds (mana), it is already implied that there was also no distinction in their awareness (jñāna). Assuredly, their separate existence (pṛthak-astitva) is real because it is eternal. Yet in this state, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa have no awareness of each other’s separate existence. Moreover, they have no awareness (jñāna), or direct experience (anubhuti), even of their own existence.
At this point, it may be questioned that if the state of supreme oneness (paraikya-avasthā) is the prime characteristic of prema-vilāsa-vivarta, then why is it that in the final verse of Rāmānanda Rāya’s song, Rādhā speaks of their separation (virāga, or viraha), in the words: “Now, He [Śrī Kṛṣṇa] must have withdrawn His love (virāga, i.e., anurāga-śūnya) [otherwise, if His anurāga for me was as before, He could never have gone off to Mathurā without returning]. You are my messenger (dūtī) [whom I must now send to Him]. So tell me, does this manner of behavior befit the love (prema) of a cultured man (supuruṣa) [meaning, that of the foremost charming hero (uttama vidagdha-nāgara)]?” (CC 2.8.156).
Additionally, it must also be asked how the awareness of separation (viraha) can be present at all in the state of supreme oneness (paraikya-avasthā). These two questions are answered as follows. First of all, it is most likely the case that the first part of Rāmānanda’s song, in which is found the words, “He is not the ramaṇa, nor I the ramaṇī,” is an indicator of the state of supreme oneness (paraikya) or of prema-vilāsa-vivarta. On the other hand, the final part of his song is understood to be an indicator of separation (viraha). In the state of separation, Rādhā speaks with anguish of their previous state of supreme oneness (paraikya) arisen from complete identification (tanmayatā) with vilāsa alone. By speaking of the unequalled and unsurpassed bliss that was relished in the state of union, the fiercely intense insufferability of the agony of separation is made evident.
The same conclusion can be inferred from the following passage of Kavi Karṇapūra’s Caitanya-Candrodaya-nāṭaka (7.16-17): “Śrī Rādhā said to Śrī Kṛṣṇa—‘When You were in Vraja, and we enjoyed the state of union, there was no awareness that I was Your lover (kāntā) and You my beloved (kānta). At that time, the mental modification (mano-vṛtti) [that is the source of the awareness of distinction (bheda-jñāna-mūla)] had dissolved. Even our conception of “You” and “I” was completely removed. But now, the recognition has dawned that You are my master (bhartā), and I am Your mistress (bhāryā). In spite of this, however, my life still somehow quivers in this body. What else could be more astonishing than this?’”
The first three sentences of this translated passage speak of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s state of supreme oneness (paraikya). This segment discloses the import of the nā so ramaṇa verse (CC 2.8.153) from Rāmānanda’s song. The remaining part of the passage speaks of the state of separation (viraha) in remembrance of their earlier time together. This entire statement from Kavi Karṇapūra’s nāṭaka is the Sanskrit translation of Rāmānanda Rāya’s Bengali song.
A second possibility is to interpret Rāmānanda Rāya’s entire song as illuminating the topic of prema-vilāsa-vivarta. In that case, we may refer to a statement from Gopāla-campu (Pūrva, 33.13) in which one of the symptoms of the state of inversion (vaiparītya) is the perception of separation (asaṁyoga) while in the state of union (saṁyoga). An illustration of this is given in the final verse of Rāmānanda Rāya’s song (CC 2.8.156). This is not real separation (vāstava viraha or asaṁyoga) but merely the mistaken perception (bhrānti) of separation. The feeling of separation is also present in the state of union that pertains to mādanākhya-mahābhāva.
Among these two resolutions (samadhāna) of the above question, however, the first is understood as intended by Kavi Karṇapūra as well, as evidenced in the above cited verses (Caitanya-Candrodaya-nāṭaka 7.16-17). Then, in regard to Prabhu’s lovingly covering Rāmānanda Rāya’s mouth with His hand (described in CC 2.8.151), Kavi Karṇapūra writes as follows: “Unconditional love (nirupādhi-prema) does not tolerate any limiting condition (upādhi). Consequently, when Prabhu heard of the unconditional love (anupādhi-prema) of the twofold Supreme Reality (bhagavatoḥ), Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Śrī Rādhā, He recognized this indeed as the supreme object of human attainment (puruṣārthī-kṛtam). He thus covered Rāmānanda Rāya’s mouth to prevent him from disclosing its mystery” (Caitanya-Candrodaya-nāṭaka 7.17).
The meaning of this statement is explored further in the commentary on the next payāra (CC 2.8.151). From this statement of Kavi Karṇapūra’s nāṭaka, it can be understood that the first part of Rāmānanda Rāya’s song is indicative of the state of supreme oneness (paraikya), which is bereft of all limiting conditions (nirupādhika) and hence the supreme object of human attainment (parama-puruṣārtha). On the other hand, the second part of the song is indicative of the awareness of the distinction between the two lovers (bheda-jñāna), which involves a limiting condition (sopādhika) and is thus bereft of the immediate perception of their supreme oneness (paraikya-jñāna-hīna). The commentary on CC 2.8.151 can be consulted for further discussion of this point.
Here you can download the complete text including the footnotes:
Prema-vilāsa-vivarta_CC, Madhya 8.150
In the material world people are impressed by the externals, such as appearance, possessions or external behavior. But, in spiritual life it is the internal mood, the bhava, that matters. Krishna rejected the big feast of Duryodhana arranged in his palace. Instead, He ate at Vidura’s house because Vidura’s meal, although simple, was served with love and affection.
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Jaya Radhe! I do not think that the translation ‘shellac’ is a proper one. Shellac is made from the secretion of a particular insect. The proper translation should be lac, the red liquid dye squeezed from betal leaf traditionally painted on the feet of women as an ornament. Sri Krishna during the nikunja lila, paints lac on the feet of His beloved, made from this substance. The ‘lac, which is Your heart and that of Radha’ is more appropriate, having a red color signifying the passion for each other within Their hearts. Tha lac has melted with sweat, during the passion of Their embrace, and so forth.
This is such a treasure. Thank you so much for translating and sharing it.