Question: Kṛṣṇa’s friends in Goloka are called nitya-mukta-jīvas. Can nitya-mukta-jīvas be placed under antaranga śakti?
Answer: No. Jīva is taṭastha śakti, both nitya-mukta as well as nitya-baddha. Moreover, Kṛṣṇa’s friends in Goloka are not nitya-mukta-jīvas. They are nitya-mukta parṣadas.
Question: Since we hear that Paramātmā is a provisional or temporary aspect of the Absolute, accompanying the jīva in his wandering during saṁsāra, I wonder if there is an eternal feature of Paramātmā, where the followers of aṣtānga-yoga reach.
Answer: The eternal feature of Paramātmā is Bhagavān. So, if the yogīs have devotional inclination, they will end up in Vaikuṇtha as sānta-bhaktas. If they have no devotional inclination, they will end up in Brahmaṇ.
Question: Since the Bhāgavata speaks of brahmeti paramātmetI bhagavāniti śabdyate, I imagine that in such cases, Paramātmā has also some eternal position or domain somewhere beyond the guṇas.
Answer: In your previous question, you yourself wrote that “Paramātmā is a provisional or temporary aspect of the Absolute, accompanying the jīva in his wandering during saṁsāra.” Now you are bringing in your own imagination, disregarding what you have heard about the temporary nature of Paramātmā.
I already answered that the eternal aspect of Paramātmā is Bhagavān. The Paramātmā aspect is to regulate prakṛti, which is His domain.
Question: Does paramātmā-sāyujya correspond with the yogīs´ desired destination?
Answer: Do you have any reference of paramātmā-sāyujya? For the three aspects of the Absolute, you give reference from śāstra, but paramātmā-sāyujya is your own imagination.
The main thing is what an individual yogī desires; what is their concept of reality. A yogī may want to merge into Brahman, or be in Vaikuṇtha, or desire paramātmā-sāyujya. Out of these three desires, I have not read anything about paramātma-sāyujya. If a yogī desires it, he will end up in brahma-sāyujya or bhagavat-sāyujya.
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Daily Bhakti Byte
The mind has the nature of not being in the present. It is always in the past or future. The characteristic of the senses is that they can only function in the present. The nose cannot smell a fragrance that is coming tomorrow or that was there yesterday. We can only hear through our ears what is being spoken now. If you can hook your your sense onto something it likes, the mind goes along with that sense into the present moment. This is the easiest way to bring the mind into the present state.